Rune nedir? Rune ne anlama gelir? Runes örnekleri nelerdir? Runology nedir? Runic alphabets nedir?

Rune nedir?

Rune, Latin alfabesine geçişten önce çeşitli antik Alman dillerinin yazımında kullanılan, eski germen alfabesindeki harflere verilen isimdir. İskandinav türevleri  are also known as futhark or fuþark (derived from their first six letters of the alphabet: FUÞAR, and K);

Runology nedir?

Runology is the study of the runic alphabets, runic inscriptions, runestones, and their history. Runology forms a specialised branch of Germanic linguistics.

runes alphabets

rune örnekleri, Codex Runicus, a vellummanuscript from approximately 1300 AD containing one of the oldest and best preserved texts of the Scanian Law, is written entirely in runes.

The runes were in use among the Germanic peoples from the 1st or 2nd century AD. This period corresponds to the late Common Germanic stage linguistically, with a continuum of dialects not yet clearly separated into the three branches of later centuries: North Germanic, West Germanic, and East Germanic.

No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time. Similarly, there are no signs for labiovelars in the Elder Futhark

The term runes is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and Greek letters. It is attested on a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runaand possibly as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone. The name comes from the Germanic root run-, meaning “secret” or “whisper”. In Old Irish Gaelic, the word rún means “mystery”, “secret”, “intention” or “affectionate love.” Similarly in Welsh and Old English, the word rhin and rūn respectively means “mystery”, “secret”, “secret writing”, or sometimes in the extreme sense of the word, “miracle” (gwyrth). Ogham is a Celtic script, similarly carved in the Norse manner. The root run- can also be found in the Baltic languages, meaning “speech”. In Lithuanian, runoti means both “to cut (with a knife)” and “to speak”. According to another theory, the Germanic root comes from the Indo-Europan root *reuə- “dig”. The Finnish term for rune, riimukirjain, means “scratched letter”. The Finnish word runo means “poem” and comes from the same source as the English word “rune”; it is a very old loan.

Runic Alfabe

Rune UCS Transliteration IPA Proto-Germanic name Meaning
f /f/ *fehu “wealth, cattle”
u /u(ː)/ ?*ūruz aurochs” (or *ûram “water/slag”?)
þ /θ/, /ð/ ?*þurisaz “the god Thorgiant
a /a(ː)/ *ansuz “one of the Æsir (gods)”
r /r/ *raidō “ride, journey”
k (c) /k/ ?*kaunan “ulcer”? (or *kenaz “torch”?)
g /ɡ/ *gebō “gift”
w /w/ *wunjō “joy”
ᚺ ᚻ h /h/ *hagalaz “hail” (the precipitation)
n /n/ *naudiz “need”
i /i(ː)/ *īsaz “ice”
j /j/ *jēra- “year, good year, harvest”
ï (æ) /æː/(?) *ī(h)waz/*ei(h)waz “yew-tree”
p /p/ ?*perþ- meaning unclear, perhaps “pear-tree”.
z /z/ ?*algiz unclear, possibly “elk“.
ᛊ ᛋ s /s/ *sōwilō “Sun”
t /t/ *tīwaz/*teiwaz “the god Tyr
b /b/ *berkanan birch
e /e(ː)/ *ehwaz “horse”
m /m/ *mannaz “Man”
l /l/ *laguz “water, lake” (or possibly *laukaz “leek”)
ᛜ ᛝ ŋ /ŋ/ *ingwaz “the god Yngvi
o /o(ː)/ *ōþila-/*ōþala- “heritage, estate, possession”
runes d /d/ *dagaz “day”

Credit: Wikipedia

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