Dystopia nedir? Dystopia çeşitleri. Dystopia ve Utopia arasındaki farklar. Dystopia örnekleri. Dystopia nedir ne değildir?
A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- “bad” and τόπος “place”; alternatively, cacotopia, kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community, society or world that is undesirable or frightening.
It is translated as “not-good place” and is an antonym of utopia. It is a term that was coined by Sir Thomas More and figures as the title of his best known work, Utopia, published 1516. It is a blueprint for an ideal society with minimal crime, violence and poverty.
Dystopian societies appear in many artistic works, particularly in stories set in the future. Some of the most famous examples are George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World.
Dystopias are often characterized by dehumanization, tyrannical governments, environmental disaster, or other characteristics associated with a cataclysmic decline in society. Dystopian societies appear in many sub-genres of fiction and are often used to draw attention to society, environment, politics, economics, religion, psychology, ethics, science or technology.
Some authors use the term to refer to existing societies, many of which are or have been totalitarian states or societies in an advanced state of collapse.
Common themes ın dystopıas
Dystopias are often filled with pessimistic views of the ruling class or a government that is brutal or uncaring, ruling with an “iron fist”. Dystopian governments are sometimes ruled by a fascist regime or dictator. These dystopian government establishments often have protagonists or groups that lead a “resistance” to enact change within their society, for example as is seen in Alan Moore’s V for Vendetta.
There are several archetypes that such societies tend to follow. A theme is the dichotomy of planned economies versus free marketeconomies, a conflict which is found in such works as Ayn Rand’s Anthem and Henry Kuttner’s short story “The Iron Standard”. Another example of this is reflected in Norman Jewison’s 1975 film Rollerball.
Some dystopias, such as that of Nineteen Eighty-Four, feature black markets with goods that are dangerous and difficult to obtain or the characters may be at the mercy of the state-controlled economy. Kurt Vonnegut’s Player Piano depicts a dystopia in which the centrally controlled economic system has indeed made material abundance plentiful but deprived the mass of humanity of meaningful labor; virtually all work is menial, unsatisfying and only a small number of the small group that achieves education is admitted to the elite and its work.
Scıence and technology
Contrary to the technologically utopian claims, which view technology as a beneficial addition to all aspects of humanity, technological dystopia concerns itself. It focuses largely (but not always) on the negative effects caused by new technology.