Chiasmus nedir? chiasmus ne demek? Rhetoric’ de chiasmus örnekleri.
In rhetoric, chiasmus or, less commonly, chiasm is a “reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses – but no repetition of words”. Chiasmus should not be confused with a subtype of this scheme, antimetabole, which also involves a reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses, but unlike chiasmus, presents a repetition of words in an A-B-B-A configuration.
Examples of chiasmus and its subtype antimetabole
Chiasmus balances words or phrases with similar, though not identical, meanings:
But O, what damned minutes tells he o’er
Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strongly loves.
—Shakespeare, Othello 3.3
“Dotes” and “strongly loves” share the same meaning and bracket “doubts” and “suspects”.
Additional examples of chiasmus:
By day the frolic, and the dance by night. — Samuel Johnson, “The Vanity of Human Wishes” (1794)
Despised, if ugly; if she’s fair, betrayed. — Mary Leapor, “Essay on Woman” (1751)
For comparison, the following is considered antimetabole, in which the reversal in structure involves the same words:
Pleasure’s a sin, and sometimes sin’s a pleasure. — Lord Byron, in “Don Juan“, (1824)
Here is the structure of antimetabole presented in table form:
Fair is foul, and foul is fair — Shakespeare, Macbeth 1.
Both chiasmus and antimetabole can be used to reinforce antithesis. In chiasmus, the clauses display inverted parallelism. Chiasmus was particularly popular in the literature of the ancient world, including Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, where it was used to articulate the balance of order within the text. For example, many long and complex chiasmi have been found in Shakespeare.