Apposition nedir? Appositive nedir? Apposition kullanımı ve örnekleri. Restrictive appositive nedir? non-restrictive appositive nedir?
Apposition nedir? Appositive nedir?
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition. One of the elements is called the appositive, although its identification requires consideration of how the elements are used in a sentence.
For example, in the two sentences below, the phrases Alice Smith and my sister are in apposition, with the appositive identified with italics:
- My sister, Alice Smith, likes jelly beans.
- Alice Smith, my sister, likes jelly beans.
Traditionally, appositions were called by their Latin name appositio, although the English form is now more commonly used. It is derived from Latin: ad (“near”) and positio(“placement”).
Apposition is a figure of speech of the scheme type, and often results when the verbs (particularly verbs of being) in supporting clauses are eliminated to produce shorter descriptive phrases. This makes them often function as hyperbatons, or figures of disorder, because they can disrupt the flow of a sentence. For example, in the phrase: “My wife, a nurse by training, …”, it is necessary to pause before the parenthetical modification “a nurse by training”.
In the following examples, the appositive phrases are shown in italics:
- I was born in Finland, the land of a thousand lakes. – Appositives are not limited to describing people.
- Barry Goldwater, the junior senator from Arizona, received the Republican nomination in 1964. – Clarifies who Barry Goldwater is.
- John and Bob, both friends of mine, are starting a band. – Provides context on my relation to John and Bob.
- Alexander the Great, the Macedonian conqueror of Persia, was one of the most successful military commanders of the ancient world. – Substantiates the sentence’s predicate.
- Dean Martin, a very popular singer, will be performing at the Sands Hotel. – Explains why Dean Martin is performing at that venue.
- You are better than anyone, anyone I’ve ever met. – Provides additional strength to the phrase.
- A staunch supporter of democracy, Rob campaigned against the king’s authoritarian rule. – Indicates the reason for Rob’s actions.
A kind of appositive is the false title, a restrictive phrase, as in “Noted biologist Jane Smith has arrived.”, where the phrase Noted biologist is used as an informal title. The use of false titles is controversial.
Appositive phrases can also serve as definitions:
- No one – not a single person – should ever suffer that way. – Emphatic semantic duplication.
- You’re simply the best, better than all the rest.