19Antecedent

Antecedent nedir? Antecedent ne anlama gelir? Antecedent örnekleri. Proform nerede kullanılır? Postcedent nedir? Implied antecedent nedir?

Antecedent nedir?

In grammar, an antecedent is an expression (word, phrase, clause, sentence, etc.) that gives its meaning to a proform (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.). A proform takes its meaning from its antecedent.

(Proform Türkçe’ de önbiçim anlamına gelmektedir. )

For example:

“John arrived late because traffic held him up”. The pronoun him refers to and takes its meaning from John, so John is the antecedent of him.

Proforms usually follow their antecedents, but sometimes they precede them, in which case one is, technically, dealing with postcedents instead of antecedents. The prefix ante- means “before” or “in front of”, and post- means “after” or “behind”.

The term antecedent stems from traditional grammar. The linguistic term that is closely related to antecedent and proform is anaphora. Theories of syntax explore the distinction between antecedents and postcedents in terms of binding.

Antecedent örnekleri

Aşağıdaki örneklerde koyu renkli kelimeler proform, altı çizili kelimeler ise koyu renkli kelimelerin antecedent’ leri olarak kullanılmaktadır.

The proforms are in bold, and their antecedents are underlined

a. Willy said he likes chocolate. – Noun as antecedent
b. My eccentric uncle likes chocolate. He tells everyone to buy him chocolate. – Noun phrase as antecedent
c. Larry was helpful, and so was Kim. – Adjective as antecedent
d. He arrived in the afternoonwhen nobody was home. – Prepositional phrase as antecedent
e. Thomas plays soccer in the park. The kids all congregate there– Prepositional phrase as antecedent
f. Our helpers did it very carefully, and we did it like that as well. – Adverb phrase as antecedent
g. Fred works hard, but Tom does not do the same– Verb phrase as antecedent
h. Susan lies all the timewhich everybody knows about. – Entire clause as antecedent
i. Our politicians have been pandering againThis demotivates the voters. – Entire sentence as antecedent
j. Someone called who offered to helpShe was really friendly. – Discontinuous word combination as antecedent
k. The paragraph has in fact been checked by Sam, but Susan won’t do it– Discontinuous word combination as antecedent

Postcedent nedir?

The ante- in antecedent means ‘before, in front of’. Thus when a proform precedes its antecedent, the antecedent is technically not an antecedent, but rather it is a postcedent, post- meaning ‘after, behind’. The following examples illustrate postcedents:

a. When it is ready, I’ll have a cup of coffee– Noun as postcedent
b. In her bed, my friend spends the entire morning. – Noun phrase as postcedent
c. It bothered me that she did not call– Clause as postcedent, example of it-extraposition
d. Two violinists were thereat the party– Prepositional phrase as postcedent
e. Sam tries to work thenwhen it is raining– Clause as postcedent

Implied antecedent nedir?

Some proforms lack a linguistic antecedent (or postcedent). In such cases, the antecedent is implied in the given discourse environment or from general knowledge of the world.

For instance: the first person pronouns Imewe, and us and second person pronoun you are proforms that usually lack a linguistic antecedent.

However, their antecedents are present in the discourse context as the speaker and the listener. Pleonastic proforms also lack a linguistic antecedent, e.g. It is raining, where the pronoun itis semantically empty and cannot be viewed as referring to anything specific in the discourse world. Definite proforms such as they and you also have an indefinite use, which means they denote some person or people in general, e.g. They will get you for that, and therefore cannot be construed as taking a linguistic antecedent.

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Credit: Wikipedia

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