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[Sabit] SEMANTIC DEVIATION notları ve örnekleri  

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ingilizedebiyatından
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Katılım : 11 ay önce
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15/01/2019 4:02 pm  

   This deviation shows that an ordinary word can have an extraordinary meaning, and that a word can have difference in meaning depending on the poet’s life and cultural background.    

The words ‘Hujan’, for example, can mean disaster to poets living in a flood-risk area, but connotes blessing to those living in a desert. Another example is in the first rhyme of tenka ‘Kanishiki Gangu’ by Takuboku; the word ‘kogarashi’.

Poetry makes much use of transference of meaning. Wallace Stevens defines peotry as “ a piece of sophisticated looniness”

Two of the most common figures of speech, simile and metaphor, may be considered as the sources of semantic deviaton in poetry.

  • Simile:

Definitions:

  • Simile is a figure of speech in which on thing is likened to another one in one respect by the use of ‘like’ , ‘as’, etc.
  • Afigure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitly compared, usually in a phrase introduced by like or as
  • Like and as (as…as) are the commonest connectives. Leach and Short(1981) use the term “quasi-similes” for literary descriptions involving the use of phrases like “as if”, “resembling”, “suggesting”, etc.

Example:

  • "He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow."
    (George Eliot, Adam Bede)

 

  • "Human speech is like a cracked cauldron on which we bang out tunes that make bears dance, when we want to move the stars to pity."
    (Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary)

 

  • "Humanity, let us say, is like people packed in an automobile which is traveling downhill without lights at terrific speed and driven by a four-year-old child. The signposts along the way are all marked 'Progress.'"
    (Lord Dunsany)
  • "Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes you weep."
    (Carl Sandburg)

 

  • "My face looks like a wedding-cake left out in the rain."
    (W.H. Auden)

 

2. Metaphor:

Definitions:

  • Metaphor is an implied comparison between two things of unlike nature that yet have something in common. Function words such as “like” and “as” arent used in a metaphor. It can be considered as the primary source of multiple meaning (ambiguity)
  • Afigure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common.
  • A metaphor expresses the unfamiliar (thetenor) in terms of the familiar (the vehicle). When Neil Young sings, "Love is a rose," "rose" is the vehicle for "love," the tenor. (In cognitive linguistics, the terms target and source are roughly equivalent to tenor and vehicle.) Adjective: metaphorical.

Types of  metaphor:

  • TheConcretive Metaphor, which attributes concreteness or physical existence to an abstraction: 'the pain of separation', 'the light of learning', 'a vicious circle' etc.

Before I met my husband, I'd never fallen in love. I'd stepped in it a few times. (Rita Rudner)

  • TheAnimistic Metaphor, which attributes animate characteristics to the inanimate objects: 'an angry sky', 'graves yawned', 'killing half-an-hour' etc.

Castle Hill groaned under the weight of its timeless ruins (Spike MilliganPuckoon)

  • TheHumanising ('Anthropomorphic') Metaphor, which attributes characteristics of humanity to what is not human: 'this friendly river', 'laughing valleys', 'his appearance and manner speak eloquently for him' etc.

Memory is a crazy woman that hoards coloured rags and throws away food. (Austin O'Malley)

  • TheSynaesthetic Metaphor, which transfers meaning from one domain of sensory perception to another: 'warm colour', 'dull sound', 'loud perfume' etc.

There was someone with a protruding stomach and a 5 o'clock shadow who wore a loud dress and a cowboy hat over long, curly hair. (The Boston Globe)

Examples:

The pain of separation……………….                                                                                                                                       

 The light of learning………………                                                                                                            

 A vicious circle………………….                                                                                                                

An angry sky…………………                                                                                                            

Graves yawned…………….                                                                                                        

 The shoulder of the hill………………..                                                                                                           

Killing half an hour……………….                                                                                                                 

This friendly river……………….

Laughing valleys…………………..                                                                                                                              

His appearance and manner speak eloquently for him…………………….                                             

Warm colour………………….                                                                                                                    

Dull sound………………..                                                                                                                       

Loud perfume…………………                                                                                                                     

Till ev’n his beams sing and my music shine…………..

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