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[Sabit] GRAMMATICAL DEVIATION notları ve örnekler  

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15/01/2019 3:54 pm  

1. Hyperbaton:

A poet can violate the surface stucture in a poem by using either an incorrect grammar or hyperbaton, which is a figure of speech in which normal word order is rearranged by inversion or fronting

Although often used for emphasis, such dviations are common in traditional poetic langugae eg. Noun + adjective order as in:

“Meadows trim with daisies pied,               ( trim meadows  /  pied daisies )

 Shallow brooks and rivers wide”

Definitions:

  • Afigure of speech that uses disruption or inversion of customary word order to produce a distinctive effect; also, a figure in which language takes a sudden turn--usually an interruption.

 

 Examples:

 

  • "Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall."
    (William Shakespeare, Measure for Measurei)

 

  • "Object there was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man."
    (Edgar Allan Poe, "The Tell-Tale Heart")

 

  • "From Cocoon forth a Butterfly
    As Lady from her Door
    Emerged--a summer afternoon--
    Repairing everywhere."
    (Emily Dickinson, "From Cocoon forth a Butterfly")

 

  • "And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made"
    (W. B. Yeats, "The Lake Isle of Innisfree")

 

  • "pity this busy monster manunkind not"
    (e.e. cummings)

 

  • "Sorry I be but go you must."
    (Yoda in Star Wars)

 

  • "One swallow does not a summer make, nor one fine day."
    (Aristotle)

2. Anastrophe:

Definitions:

  • rhetorical term for the inversion of conventional word order. Adjective: anastrophic.
  • "Anastropheis an unusual arrangement, an inversion of what is logical or normal, in literature of the words of a sentence, in film of the image, in angle, in focus, and in lighting. It comprises all forms of technical distortion. It is clearly a figure to be used rarely, and it is not always certain if it has the effect intended. . .

 

Examples:

  • "Clear, placid Leman! thy contrasted lake
    With the wild world I dwelt in."
    (Lord Byron, Childe Harold)

 

  • Corie Bratter: Six days does not a week make.
    Paul Bratter: What does that mean?
    Corie Bratter: I don't know!
    (Jane Fonda and Robert Redford in Barefoot in the Park, 1967)

 

  • "A ghastly ghoul prowled around a cemetery not far from Paris. Into family chapels went he, robbery of the dead intent upon."
    ("Foreign News Notes," Timemagazine, June 2, 1924)

 

  • "Backward ran sentences until reels the mind. . . . Where it all will end, knows God!"
    (Wolcott Gibbs, from a parody of TimeThe New Yorker, 1936)

 

3. Parenthesis:

Definitions:

  • Either or both of the upright curved lines, ( ), used to mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in writing.
  • The insertion of some verbal unit that interrupts the normal syntactic flow of the sentence.

Examples:

  • "The English (it must be owned) are rather a foul-mouthed nation."
    (William Hazlitt)
  • "In the valley of the jolly--ho-ho-ho!--Green Giant."
    (commercial jingle for Green Giant foods)
  • "Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please. (Facts are stubborn, but statistics are more pliable.)"
    (Mark Twain)

4. Apposition:

Definitions:

  • Placing side-by-side twocoordinate elements (noun phrases), the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the first. Adjective: appositional.

 

  • A construction in which a noun or noun phrase is placed with another as an explanatory equivalent, both having the same syntactic relation to the other elements in the sentence; for example,Copley andthe painter in The painter Copley was born in Boston.
  • The relationship between such nouns or noun phrases.

 

Examples:

 

  • "This is a valley of ashes--a fantastic farmwhere ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens; where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and finally, with a transcendent effort, of ash-grey men, who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air."
    (F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby)

 

  • "Miniver Cheevy, child of scorn,
    grew lean while he assailed the seasons."
    (E.A. Robinson, "Miniver Cheevy")

 

  • "It was a bleak period of present privation and threatening disaster--the period of soya beans and Basic English--and in consequence the book is infused with a kind of gluttony, for food and wine, for the splendors of the recent past, and for rhetorical and ornamental language, which now with a full stomach I find distasteful."
    (Evelyn Waugh in 1959 on his wartime novel Brideshead Revisited)

 

  • "Schlitz--the beer that made Milwaukee famous."
    (advertising slogan for Schlitz beer)

 

  • "Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins."
    (Vladimir Nabokov, Lolita)
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