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[Sabit] FIGURES OF SPEECH -2 -Tropes örnek ve açıklamaları  

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15/01/2019 7:03 pm  

Figure of speech – Tropes

 

  1. Rhetorical question: Asking a question as a way of asserting something
  • How many time do I have to tell you to stop walking into the house with mud on your shoes?
  1. simile: is a figure of speech in which the subject is compared to another subject. It is an explicit comparison between two things, frequently, they are marked by use of the words like or as.
  • The snow was like a blanket
  1. Aposiopesis: stopping a sentence in midcourse so that the statement is unfinished
  • He said you were, I dare not tell you plaine:/ For words once out, never returne againe.---The Arte of English Poesie, 139
  1. Pun: A play on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on the similar sense or sound of different words. According to Leech it is “ a foregrounded lexical ambiguitu” . It takes the advantage of polysemy, homonymy, or homophony. In rhetoric, Paronomasia was the general term to refer to different kinds of puns.

a) Syllepsis: A form of pun, in which a single word is used to modify two other words, with which it normally would have differing meanings

  • he lost his hat and his temper
  • she lowered her standards by raising her glass, her courage, her eyes

b) antanaclasis: A form of pun in which a word is repeated in two different senses

  • learn a craft so that when you grow older you will not have to earn your living by craft ( polysemy )

c) paronomasia: A form of pun, in which words similar in sound but with different meanings are used

  • ıt was a foul act to steal my fowl ( homophony )
  1. Zeugma: a figure of speech related to syllepsis, but different in that the word used as a modifier is not compatible with one of the two words it modifies. It applies to two others in different senses of that word, and in some cases only logically applies to one of the other two words.
  • He broke the record and a leg
  1. Hyperbole: exaggerated or extravagant statement used to make a strong impression, but not intended to be taken literally
  • My left leg weighs three tons. I cant move. I ahvent moved for five thousand years
  1. Litotes: as the opposite of Hyperbole or over-statement, litotes is based on understatement for its effect. To express the opposite, it takes negative forms. Litotes is a form of meiosis ( a lessening). It is deliberate use of understatement not to deceive someone but to enhance the impressiveness of what we say
  • I am no stupid, -he is no fool
  1. Oxymoron: using two  terms together, that normally contradict each other. In oxymoron, two words which are contradictory are combined to each other.
  • Bitter sweet memories
  1. Personification: also is known as  prosopopoeia/anthropomorphism: Attributing a personality to some impersonal object
  • The ground thirsts for rain
  1. Anthimeria: (greek: one part for another ) is the use of a word of one class as if it were a member of another, typically the use of a noun as a verb.
  • I will unhair thy head
  1. Irony: is a form of expression in which an implicit meaning is concealed or contradicted by the explicit meaning of the expression. Irony involves the perception that things are not what they are said to be or what they seem. Dramatic irony lies in the audience’s deeper perceptions of a coming fate, which contrast with a character’s ignorance.
  1. Antonomasia: is a rhetoric device: the substitution of any epitet or phrase for a proper name: the opposite substitution of a proper name for some generic term is also sometimes called antonomasia. The word derives from the greek word antonomazein meaning “ to name differently”

 A frequent instance of antonomasia in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance was the use of the term  “philosopher” to refer to Aristotle. The substitution of a name  or adj phrase or for a well known proper name or the use of a proper name as a comman name.

  • She is an Amozon
  • The Iron Lady… for Margaret Thatcher
  • The author of the paradise lost
  1. Synecdoche: is a figure of speech in which the one of the following is expressed, vice versa.
  • A part of something is used for the whole
  • The whole is used for a part
  • The species is used for the genus
  • The genus is used for the species, or
  • The stuff of which something is made is used for the thing

Synecdoche, as well as forms of metonymy, is one the most common ways to characterize a fictional character. Frequenly someone will be consistently described by a single body part or feature, such as the eyes which comes to represent their person. Also sonnets and other forms of poetry frequently use synecdoches to characterize the beloved body parts rather than a whole, cohorent self. This practice is especially common in the Petrarchan sonnet, where the idealised beloved is often described part by part, from head to toe.

  • A part of something is used for the whole
    • "hands" to refer to workers, "head" for cattle, "threads" for clothing, "wheels" for "car", "mouths to feed" for hungry people
  • The whole is used for a part

"the police" for a handful of officers, the "smiling year" for "spring", "the Pentagon" for the top generals inthe Pentagon building

  • The species is used for the genus

"cutthroat" for "assassin", "kleenex" for facial tissue, "castle" for "home"

  • The genus is used for the species

"creature" for "person", "personal computer" for "IBM-compatible personal computer"

  • The stuff of which something is made is used for the thing

"hickory" for "baseball bat", "copper" for "penny", "boards" for "stage", "ivories" for piano keys, "plastic" for "credit card"

  1. Metonoymy: metonymy(in Greek meta = after/later and onoma = name) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. It is also known as denominatio or pars pro toto (part for the whole). metonymy is the substitution of one word for another with which it is associated.

Here are two senses for metonymy:

  1. Metonymy is, broadly defined a trope in which one entity is used to stand for another associated entity.
  2. Metonymy is, more specificly, a replacive relationship that is the basis for a number of conventional metonymic expressions occurring in ordinary language.
  • Synecdoche, where a specific part of something is taken to refer to the whole, is usally understood as a specific kind of metonymy. Sometimes however people make an absolute distinction between a metonymy and a synecdoche, treating metonymy as different from rather than inclusive of synecdoche. There is a similar problem with the usage of simile and methaphor.
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