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[Sabit] FIGURES OF SPEECH- 1- Schemes çeşitleri açıklama ve örnekleriyle  

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Figures of speech are any artful deviations from the ordinary mode of speaking or writing since the classical period they have laways been used to give a certain style to literary work. For this reason they are mostly accepted as embellishments of language. They are the means of making people believe our arguments and causing strong feelings and emotions.

  Traditionally, figures of speech are devided into two:

  1. Schemes

  2. Tropes

Trope: The use of a word, phrase, or image in a way not intended by its normal signification. Or A trope is an artful deviation from the ordinary or principal definition of a word. Tropes are commonly called figures of speech or stylistic devices.

Scheme: A change in standard word order or pattern. Or A scheme is an artful deviation from the ordinary arrangement of words.

  SCHEMES

1.      Structures of Balance

  • Parallelism Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses.
    • Isocolon A series of similarly structured elements having the same length.
    • Tricolon Three parallel elements of the same length occurring together.
  • Antithesis Juxtaposition of contrasting ideas (often in parallel structure).
  • Climax Generally, the arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance, often in parallel structure.

2.     Changes in word order

  • AnastropheInversion of natural word order.
  • ParenthesisInsertion of a verbal unit that interrupts normal syntactical flow.
  • AppositionAddition of an adjacent, coordinate, explanatory element.

3.     Omission

  • EllipsisOmission of a word or words readily implied by context.
  • AsyndetonOmission of conjunctions between a series of clauses.
  • BrachylogiaOmission of conjunctions between a series of words.
  • (Polysyndeton)Opposite of asyndeton, a superabundance of conjunctions

4.     Repetition

  • AlliterationRepetition of initial or medial consonants in two or more adjacent words.
  • AssonanceRepetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words.
  • PolyptotonRepetition of words derived from the same root.
  • AntanaclasisRepetition of a word in two different senses.
  • AnaphoraRepetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses.
  • EpistropheRepetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses.
  • EpanalepsisRepetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause.
  • AnadiplosisRepetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause.
  • ClimaxRepetition of the scheme anadiplosis at least three times, with the elements arranged in an order of increasing importance.
  • AntimetaboleRepetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order. (Sometimes mistaken as chiasmus)
  • ChiasmusRepetition of grammatical structures in reverse order in successive phrases or clauses (not to be mistaken with antimetabole).

                              Examples:

  1. Parallelism:

parallelism of words:
She tried to make her pastry fluffy, sweet, and delicate.

parallelism of phrases:
Singing a song or writing a poem is joyous.

parallelism of clauses:
Perch are inexpensive; cod are cheap; trout are abundant; but salmon are best.

  1. Isocolon:

Veni, vidi, vici (I came, I saw, I conquered)

  1. Tricolon:

Veni, vidi, vici. —Julius Caesar  ("I came; I saw; I conquered." However, the English is not a true tricolon, for its verbs are not all the same length, as is the case in the Latin)

  1. Anastrophe:                                                                

 it occurs whenever normal syntactical arrangment is violated for emphasis:

The verb before the subject-noun (normal syntax follows the order subject-noun, verb):
Glistens the dew upon the morning grass. (Normally: The dew glistens upon the morning grass)

Adjective following the noun it modifies (normal syntax is adjective, noun):
She looked at the sky dark and menacing. (Normally: She looked at the dark and menacing sky)

The object preceding its verb (normal syntax is verb followed by its object):
Troubles, everybody's got. (Normally: Everybody's got troubles)

Preposition following the object of the preposition (normal syntax is preposition, object ["upon our lives"]):
It only stands / Our lives upon, to use Our strongest hands
—Shakespeare, Antony and Cleopatra 2.1.50-51

  1. Parenthesis:

Insertion of a verbal unit that interrupts normal syntactical flow.

But what might you think, 
When I had seen this hot love on the wing—
As I perceiv'd it (I must tell you that)
Before my daughter told me—what might you,
Or my dear Majesty your queen here, think...?

  1. Apposition: 

                                                                                                                                                        Addition of an adjacent, coordinate, explanatory or descriptive element.

Albert Einstein, perhaps the greatest of scientists, seemed not to have mastered the physics of hair combing.

  1. Ellipsis:

The average person thinks he isn't." –Father Larry Lorenzoni
The term "average" is omitted but understood after "isn't."

John forgives Mary and Mary, John. 
Note that the comma signals what has been elided, "forgives"

  1. Asyndeton

The omission of conjunctions between clauses, often resulting in a hurried rhythm or vehement effect.

Veni, vidi, vici (Caesar: "I came; I saw; I conquered")

 

  1. Brachylogia: 

The absence of conjunctions between single words. Compareasyndeton. The effect of brachylogia is a broken, hurried delivery.

Phillip! Rise! Eat! Leave!

Love, hate, jealousy, frenzy, fury drew him from pity —Angel Day

  1. Polysyndeton:                           

Employing many conjunctions between clauses, often slowing the tempo or rhythm.

I said, "Who killed him?" and he said, "I don't know who killed him but he's dead all right," and it was dark and there was water standing in the street and no lights and windows broke and boats all up in the townand trees blown down and everything all blown and I got a skiff andwent out and found my boat where I had her inside Mango Key andshe was all right only she was full of water.
—Ernest Hemingway, "After the Storm."

  1. Alliteration                   

Repetition of the same letter or sound within nearby words. Most often, repeated initial consonants.

Why not waste a wild weekend at Westmore Water Park?

  1. Assonance

Repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words

The seargant asked him to bomb the lawn with hotpots.

  1. Polyptoton: 

Repeating a word, but in a different form. Using a cognate of a given word in close proximity.

With eager feeding food doth choke the feeder.

  1. Antanaclasis: 

The repetition of a word or phrase whose meaning changes in the second instance.

Your argument is sound...all sound. —Benjamin Franklin 

The meaning of "sound" first appears to be "solid" or "reasonable"; in its repetition, it means something very different, "all air" or "empty"

In thy youth learn some craft that in thy age thou mayest get thy living without craft.

The meaning of "craft" first means "vocation"; in its repetition, it means "fraud" or "cunning."

While we live, let us live.

15.  Anaphora:

Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses, sentences, or lines.

This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, 
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, 

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings [. . .]
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,

  1. Epistrophe:  

What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny compared to what lies within us." —Emerson

              Hourly joys be still upon you!
               Juno sings her blessings on you. [. . .]
              Scarcity and want shall shun you,
              Ceres' blessing so is on you.          — Shakespeare,

  1. Epanalepsis:

Repetition of the same word or clause after intervening matter. More strictly, repetition at the end of a line, phrase, or clause of the word or words that occurred at the beginning of the same line, phrase, or clause.

"In times like these, it is helpful to remember that there have always been times like these. " —Paul Harvey

"Believe not all you can hear, tell not all you believe." —Native American proverb

"A lie begets a lie." —English proverb

"To each the boulders that have fallen to each." 
—Robert Frost, "Mending Wall"

  1. Anadiplosis: 

The repetition of the last word (or phrase) from the previous line, clause, or sentence at the beginning of the next. Often combined withclimax.

The love of wicked men converts to fear,
That fear to hate, and hate turns one or both 
To worthy danger and deserved death. 
—Shakespeare, Richard II 5.1.66-68

The following shows anadiplosis of a phrase:
...a man could stand and see the whole wide reach
Of blue Atlantic. But he stayed ashore

He stayed ashore and plowed, and drilled his rows... 
                                     — Charles Bruce, “Biography”

  1. Climax:

Generally, the arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of increasing importance, often in parallel structure. More specifically, climax is the repetition of the last word of one clause or sentence at the beginning of the next, through several clauses or sentences (=anadiplosis)

Miss America was not so much interested in serving herself as she was eager to serve her family, her community, and her nation.

The following passage from the Bible shows that version of climax that is synonymous with anadiplosis:

But we glory also in tribulations, knowing that tribulation workethpatience; and patience trial; and trial hope; and hope confoundeth not, because the charity of God is poured forth in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost, who is given to us.  —St. Paul

  1. Antimetabole: 

Repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order. This figure is sometimes known aschiasmus.

the going gets tough, the tough get going.

Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. —John F. Kennedy

You can take the gorilla out of the jungle, but you can't take thejungle out of the gorilla.

Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledgewithout integrity is dangerous and dreadful. —Samuel Johnson, Rasselas

Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darknessfor light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweetfor bitter! —Isaiah 5:20

  1. Chiasmus:

  • Repetition of ideas in inverted order
  • Repetition of grammatical structures in inverted order (not to be mistaken withantimetabole, in which identical words are repeated and inverted).

But O, what damned minutes tells he o'er
Who dotes, yet doubts; suspects, yet strong loves.
—Shakespeare, Othello 3.3

The idea of affection occurs in "dotes" and "strongly loves"; the idea of doubting in "doubts" and "suspects". These two ideas occur in the quotation in an A B B A order, thus repeated and inverted

It is boring to eat; to sleep is fulfilling

The pattern is present participle-infinitive; infinitive-present participle

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