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[Sabit] COMPARATİVE, boşluk doldurma tüm sorular ve yanıtları  

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14/01/2019 6:16 pm  
  1. Comparative literature has an interdisciplinary nature. This eclecticisim has led comparatists and critics to define the field as “……………………………”
  2. Comparative literature has its roots in the ideas of a German man of letters, Johann………………….……...in his divisions of “………..…………..……………” (…………………………..) during the second half of the………..century
  3. During the late 19th century, comparatists were chiefly concerned with deducing the purported Zeitgeist or “………………………………….” Which they assumed to be embodied in the literary output of each nation.
  4. During the 19th century, the most important feature of comparative studies was that they based on………………… approach when compared in today’s standarts these studies seem to be………………………………………..
  5. During the 19th century, it seems that the comparative studies of German School had a………………….…. and…………………………. nature whereas those of the …………………… were mostly Eruocentric.

 

answer key:

  1. literature without borders
  2. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - world literatue - 18th
  3. Spirit of the times
  4. national - chauvinistic/eurocentric/nationalistic
  5. chauvinistic- expensionist-french

 

  1. From the early part of the 20th century until the Second World War, the “French School” examined works forensically, looking for evidence of “…………………” and “………………………….” between works from different nations
  2. One of the most important scholars of the French School, Second was…………. The ideas of the school were usually criticized by the …………………. School, in which the most important scholar was Rene………
  3. Rene Wellek criticized the French School indicating that ………………………………..
  4. Differences between the ideas of Carre and Wellek are;

     Carre;                                                 Wellek 

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. Today, most scholars try to re-focus the discipline away from the…………………. approach with which it has previously been associated towards a ……………………. approach that pays no heed to national borders. Works of this nature include Gayatry Chakravorty…………………..’s Death of a Discipline, David Damrosch’s……………… ………………………… Steven Tötösy de……………………………………’s concept of “comparative cultural studies”

 

answer key:

6.Origins-influences

7.Jean Marie Carre- American-  Wellek

8.The scholars couldn’t well determine the borders of the area

9.Carre:                                                                           Wellek:

   *choosing authors                                                             *ideal general literature

   *cross national (cultural) comparison                          * rather than national literature

   * no emphasis on the aesthetic function of lit.            * text is considered as a work of art

10.nation-based, - cross cultural- spivak- what is world lit.-Zepetnek

 

  1. Wide Sargasso Sea was written by ………………………as a ……………………… to Charlotte Bronte’s………………………..
  2. A………………….. is a work that supplements a previously completed one, and has an earlier time setting. A…………………. forms part of the “back -story”
  3. Especially in postcolonial literature, prequels have been useful devices of ………………….
  4. A few examples of well-known prequels are a) Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys as a prequel to Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre b) …………….. by……………………… as a prequel to the Tempest by…………………… c) ………………………….. by J.M. coetzee as a prequel to ……………………………… by Daniel Defoe
  5. Wide Sargasso Sea is usually thought of as a …………………… and ………………………. response to Jane Eyre. It is especially the last and shortest chapter of the novel that makes it a …………………………. text.

 

answer key:

11.Jean Rhys- prequel- Jane Eyre

12.prequel- prequel

13.subversion

14.a tempest by Aime Cesaire-  Shakespeare-Coetzee’s Foe – Robinson Crusoe

15.post modern- post colonial- post modern

 

  1. In the last chapter of wide Sargasso Sea, narrating in a …………………… Bertha decides to commit suicide as she believes it to be her destiny.
  2. Wide Sargasso Sea transforms Rochester’s first wife from Bertha Mason, the infamous “ …………………………….”, to the lively yet vulnerable…………………………..
  3. To discuss the socio-economical and political condition in the Caribean Islands, as the first technique of subversion in her novel, Jean Rhys changes……………….. (time and place) of Jane  In this way, wide Sargasso Sea conveys the postcolonial themes such as……………………………………………………… and conflicts between races.
  4. The events in wide Sargasso Sea take place in three places: Two islands,……………. and………………… and England. The events in Jane Eyre take place between 1798 and 1808 whereas Wide Sargasso Sea is set between 1834 and 1845. The time frame used in wide Sargasso Sea corresponds to the years of the ………………………. Act 1833, which is also known as the ………………………………………. of the British Parliament abolishing slavery throughhout the Great Britain and its colonies.
  5. According to Gayatry Chakravorty Spivak, as indicated in her article “ three Women’s Text and A Critique of Imperialism” , the character Rochester is constructed around the ………………… complex and the Antoinette character around the theme of ……………………………

 

answer key:

16.stream of consciousness

17.mad woman- Antoinette

18.setting- racial discrimination (inequlity)

19.Jamaica and Dominica- Emancipation- slavery abolition

20.Narcissus (full of  images of mirror and mirroring)

 

  1. The …………… complex is a term used by Sigmund Freud in his theory of psychosexual stages od development to describe a boy’s feelings of desire for his mother and jealously and anger towards his father. The analogous stage for girls is known as the …………………. complex in which girls feel desire for their fathers and jealousy of their mothers.
  2. In Ovid’s Metamorphoses, ……………………..’ madness is disclosed when he recognizes his Other as his self. Rhys makes Antoinette see her self as her Other, Bronte’s Berta.
  3. Gayatry……………………………….. in her 1986 essay, criticizes feminist critics for ignoring the figure of Bertha Mason in Bronte’s Jane Eyre……………………… maintains that “ it should not be possible to read the nineteenth-century British literature without remembering that…………………………… understood as England’s social mission, was a crucial part of the cultural representation of England to the English”
  4. Bertha Mason is depicted as a wild animal and nymphomaniac savage in Jane Eyre. By defining her in this way, Charlotte Bronte posits a direct link between Bertha and the savage …………………….. of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest as ……………… was “the archetypal savage” ( Nixon 1994) in the nineteenth century English literature..
  5. Bertha curses Rochester and uses obscene language just in a way the savage Caliban curses his master,……………….. Rochester accuses her of sexual guilt and, just like …………………. with caliban, he enslaves her. But Bertha’s as a savage is worse than Caliban’s Bertha is represented as more sexualized than Shakespeare’s savage and thus far more irredeemable.

 

answer key:

21. Oedipus- Electra

22. Narcissus

23. Chakravorty Spivak- Spivak- Imperialism

24. Caliban- Caliban-

25. Prospero- Prospero

  1. To discuss the destructive effect of colonialism on the construction of human identity, the perennial postcolonial problem of finding a place for himself/herself, the concepts of mimicry, ambivalence and inbetweeness, and the cruelty of displacement and assimilation, Rhys uses the ………………….. character.
  2. The race relationships of the novel are also underlined by ……………………….. in wide Sargasso Sea. In order to represent English characters in the novel ( such as Antoinnette’s stepfather, Mr. Mason and her husband Mr Rochester ) Rhys prefers using …………………………………. whereas the Jamaican varieties of english language are used to represent the Creoles and the local blacks.
  3. In Wide Sargasso Sea, Antoinette is depicted as an object of another’s subjectivity. This is suggested when………………………. …………… ……………………………………… she considers this acty as another type of …………………………..’ a form of a dark magic practiced by the European people to colonize the non- Europeans.
  4. In wide Sargasso Sea, the English prejudices and presumptions about the Creoles and the local blacks, English self-centeredness and possessiveness and the concept of “Englishness” are underlined through the ………………………….. character.
  5. As Rhys considers…………………………. and…………………………. as the main features of Jane Eyre, she focuses mainly on the implications of Bronte and Victorian England’s celebration of the laws dictating that cultural, racial and sexual differences were to be considered as alien, sinful and abnormal

 

answer key:

  1. Antoinette
  2. The use of language- standard British english
  3. Rochester renamed Antoinette- Obeah
  4. Rochester

    30.Empire-race

 

  1. The ending of Wide Sargasso Sea has caused many debates among critics. Some critics argue that Antoinette can not escape the fate that was prepared for her by Bronte because …………..……………….. ………………………………………………………………..
  2. The last and the shortest part of Wide Sargasso Sea, Part 3 posits a direct intertexual reference to Jane Eyre How?

 a)…………………………………………………………………………

b)…………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Rhys inserts Rochester’s words to Jane in Jane Eyre within her novel. The words repeated are “……………………………………” and “…………………………………..” This insertion providing a direct intertextual references to Jane Eyre aims at underlining that these words cannot be read the same way. Nixon argues that “Antoinette’s repeatition of the words that Rochester has said to her and to Jane – a repeatition of a repeation- creates a …………………………………. ……………….. effect, in which the two narratives reflect back on each other. (Nixon,1994)
  2. To describe the Thornfield Hall, Antoinette uses the noun phares “ this cardboard house” This cardboard house where I walked at night is not England” (Rhys,1968,114) “this cardboard house” a book between cardboard covers - is a metonymy of ……………………what is the function of this metonymy? ......................................................................
  3. At the very end of Wide Sargasso Sea, Antoinette understands the reason why she has been brought into the England of Bronte’s novel: “Now at last why I was brought here and what I have to do” (152). Why was she brought to Jane Eyre? …………………………………………… ……………………… Spivak indicates that she “must read this as an allegory of the general epistemic violance of imperialism”

 

answer key:

      1. Antoinette can no suicide just like Bertha in the Jane Eyre

  1. a) Rhys inserts Rochester’s words to Jane in Jane Eyre within her novel                                                                                                                   b) the repeat of the characters: Grace Poole, Suicide Act, Cardboard house
  2. Intemperate- unchaste - infamous daughter of an infamous mother
  3. Bronte’s Jane Eyre - Antoinette understands that she doesn’t belong to the imperialist England in Bronte’s Novel and England is in the novel is not the England She dreamt of-
  4. she was brought here to play out the mad Bertha character to make Jane Eyre an English heroin

 

  1. ………………………………………. is the dustruction of non-western ways of knowing and thereby the dominance of Western ways of understanding
  2. Madam Bovary was written by the French author………………………..…………………… Anna Karanina was written by the Russian author Count………………………..…..…………….. Aşk-I Memnu was written by the Turkish author…………………………………… and The Awakening was written by the American author…………………………………....
  3. The themes conveyed in those four novels are the very similar: ……………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  4. These are twenty-five years between the publication date of these novels. they must be investigated to understand the Zeitgeists, ………………………….. All of them reflect the social and moral changes in their own societies during this period.
  5. All of them are…………………………………………… (which movement) works

 

answer key:

  1. Epistemic (related to knowledge) violance
  2. Gustave Flaubert- L. Nikolayevich Tolstoy- Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil- Kate Chopin
  3. Adultery, Suicide of the woman characters, criticisim of the society, problems of transition from a classical society to a modern one

      4.Spirit of the Time

      5.Realist

  1. Aşk-Memnu was written under the influence of……………………… whereas Anna Karanina doesn’t have such an effect
  2. As Tolstoy was very interested in morality and educational reform, he criticizes the adulterous affair between Anna and Vronsky by comparing it to the relationship between …………….. ………………………….. and ………………………………………….
  3. Throughout Anna Karanina the character ……………………………….. supports in his arguments Tolstoy’s outspoken views on the same issues.
  4. As it is a great sin to commit suicide in islamic thought, the theme of committing suicide cannot be found in any of the literary works. When Aşk-I Memnu was written, the Ottoman Literature was under the influence of…………….…………….……. literature…………….….……….. influence started after 1900’s
  5. Emma always feels that an invisible eye is watching her. the invisible eye symbolizes social constrains on her. This invisiable eye is provided by ……………………………………. in Aşk-I Memnu.

 

answer key:

1.Madam Bovary

2.Levin- Kitty

3.Levin

4.French literature- Russion

5.Beşir’s eyes

 

  1. The first Turkish novel Taaşuk-u Tal’at ve Fıtnat ( Tal’at and Fitnat in Love” ) by …………………… ………………………. (1850-1904) was published  in 1872
  2. The Edebiyat-I Cedide, or “New Literature”, movement began with the founding in 1891 of the periodical ……………………………… ( “scientific Wealth”), which was largely devoted to progress- both intellectual and scientific- along the Western model. Aşk-I Memnu was serialized from 1899 to 1990 in the …………….. ………………………………..
  3. As a noun, “………………………………….” means an exaggerated, especially glamorized, estimate of oneself ; conciet…………………………… represents a personification in novel’s characters, the creation of a parallel reality in which we are the main characters.
  4. In his article, Emin Özcan works over three authors - ……………………………… ,  …………………… ……………. and Jean de Lery- to consider comparative literature in its historical process. For Özcan, comparative lit. was born as result of the desire of nations to identify themselves in the face of “Other” nations.
  5. Özcan choses three examples from three different periods to explain his ideas. the first name the Antiquity is …………………………………………….

answer key:

1.Şemsettin Sami

2.Serveti fünun- Serveti fünun

3.Bovarism- Bovarism

4.Herodotos, John de Mandeville

5.Herodotos

 

  1. Herodotus, as an ancient historian who lived from 484 to 425 BC, and the author of the first great narrative history produced in the ancient world, the History of the Persian Wars, constitutes an example from …………………………… in his The History , he made comparisons based on ……………….……….. ……………..between the Greek and Other nations.
  2. From the Middle ages, Özcan’s example is “ Jehan de Mandeville” translated as “……………………………” is the name claimed by the compiler of the …………………………………….. a book account of his supposed travels, written in Anglo-Norman language, and first circulated between 1357 and 1371. Mandeville was a religious English knight and travelled to Jerusalem. Mandeville’s understanding of comparison is based on …………………………………………………………….
  3. It is easily understood that there is a great gap between the ideas of ………………………………….. and ……………………………………………….. reflecting the difference in the point of views during the centuries these two authors lived. Herodotus consideres the “Other” from a wide and general perspective whereas Mandeville consideres “Other” from a more limited and mostly …………………………….. perspective. This gap reveals the different perspectives during the Antiquity and the middle ages.
  4. Özcan’s third example was …………………………………… (1536-1613) He was an example from the period of high colonialism …………………………………(1536-1613) was an explorer, writer and Reformed Pastor born in France. He accompanied a group of protestant to their new colony on an Island in the Rio de Janerio, Brazil. The colony, France Antarctique was founded by the Chevalier de Villegaignon, with promises of religious freedom, but on arrival, the Chevalier contested the Protestant’s beliefs and persecuted them. After eight months the Protestans left their colony and settled on the mainland, near the Tupi people ( an indian tribe) . These events were basis of Lerry’s book, History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, also called America (1578). Thorughout this book, Lery describes his fascinating voyage across the Atlantic to Brazil. He compares the culture of the Indian tribes and cannibalism to that of the European civilization. He indicatws that Europeans have behaved worse than cannibals because the persecutions by the Europeans are made because of the political purposes.
  5. While compaing two different worlds, Herodotus moved from the …………………………….. to the ……………………………. whereas Lery moved from the …...……………… to the………….…………….. to determine the unknown feature of the known. In his type of comparison, in fact, his own culture meets its own self and tries to understand it better.

 

answer key:

1. antiquity (ancient times)- similarities

2.“Jonh”- Voyages (geziler)- differences

3. John de Mandeville- religous

4. Jean de Lery- Jean de Lery

5. known – unknown - unknown to known

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