A tempest ve Caliban notları
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Aimé Fernand David Césaire (26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was an African-Martinican francophone poet, author and politician. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francophone literature"
The adjective francophone alternatively means french-speaking
Aimé Césaire was born in Basse-Pointe, Martinique in 1913..
Aimé Césaire formulated with Léopold Senghor and Léon Gontian Damas the concept and movement of négritude, defined as "affirmation that one is black and proud of it". Césaire's thoughts about restoring the cultural identity of black Africans were first fully expressed in Cahier d'un retour au pays natal (Return to My Native Land), a mixture of poetry and poetic prose. The work celebrated the ancestral homelands of Africa and the Caribbean. It was completed in 1939 but not published in full form until 1947.
His poems usually concerned; with slavery, freedom, and paradise, language is distorted in opposution to the colonial French. "I am talking of millions of men who have been skillfully injected with fear, inferiority complexes, trepidation, servility, despair, abasement
Césaire criticism of European civilization and colonial racism in Discours sur le colonialisme (1955) influenced deeply Frantz Fanon's revolutionary manifesto Black Skin, White Masks (1967), an examination of psychic, cultural and social damages inflicted by colonialism.
Césaire paralles the relationship between the colonizer and the colonized with the relationship between Nazis and their victims;
"People are astounded, they are angry. They say: "How strange that is. But then it is only Nazism, it wont last." And they wait, and they hope; and they hide the truth from themselves: It is savagery, the supreme savagery, it crowns, it epitomizes the day-to-day savageries; yes, it is Nazism, but before they became its victims, they were its accomplices; that Nazism they tolerated before they succumbed to it, they exonerated it, they closed their eyes to it, they legitimated it because until then it had been employed only against non-European peoples; that Nazism they encouraged, they were responsible for it, and it drips, it seeps, it wells fro every crack in western Christian civilization until it engulfs that civilization in a bloody sea."
- Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a Martiniquo- psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary and writer whose work is influential in the fields of post-colonial studies, critical theory and Marxism.
- Fanon is known as a radical existential humanist thinker on the issue of decolonization and the psychopathology of colonization
- William Shakespeare writes the Empire with his the Tempest
- One of the Caribbean responses is Cesaire’s A Tempest
- A Tempest was originally written in 1969 in french by Aime Cesaire
In the 1930s, he, along with Leopold Senghor and Leon Gontian Damas, developed the negritude movement which endeavored to question French colonial rule and restore the cultural identity of blacks in the African diaspora.
A Tempest is the third play in a trilogy aimed at advancing the tenets of the negritude movement.
A Tempest is a postcolonial revision of William Shakespeare’s The Tempest and draws heavily on the original play—the cast of characters is, for the most part, the same, and the foundation of the plot follows the same basic premise.
The story is the same: a big storm, an angry Duke who’s been usurped by his brother, and, of course, the natives. This play deals mostly with the natives, Ariel and Caliban. It is Cesaire’s comment on the colonization of the “New World”. He has many of the same ideas as C.I.R. James, and Franz Fanon, and he as inspired never Caribbean writers like Michelle Cliff.
A Tempest focuses on the plight of Ariel and Caliban—the never-ending quest to gain freedom from Prospero and his rule over the island. Cesaire sets A Tempest in Haiti. Cesaire portrayed Prospero, the white man, as a decendent colonizer; Caliban the man of instict, has a black cultural heritage, he rebels for his freedom, but fails and accuses Prospero: “ Prospero, you are the master of illusion/ Lying is your trademark” Ariel, a mulatto ( a person of mixed balck and white ancestry) slave is pressed between these opposite forces of Caliban and Prospero. Aime Cesaire, in his play A tempest, creates a Caliban character that refuses to be defined and limited by Prospero and confronts him with an independent indentity capable of chanfe and growth. Ariel, unlike the more rebellious Caliban, feels that negotiation and partnership is the way to freedom from the colonizers. Ariel, more moderate than Caliban and dutiful to Prospero, follows all orders given to him and sincerely believes that Prospero will honor his promise of emancipation..
Caliban’s first word is “Uhuru”, which is Swahili for “freedom”.
Prospero complains that Caliban often speaks in his native language which Prospero has forbidden. This prompts Caliban to attempt to claim birthrights to the island, angering Prospero who threatens to whip Caliban. During their argument, Caliban tells Prospero that he no longer wants to be called Caliban, “Call me X. That would be best. Like a man without a name. Or, to be more precise, a man whose name has been stolen.”
“Call me X”, says Caliban, echoing the radical voice of Malcolm X, an African-American Muslim minister, human rights activist and public speaker. The allusion to Malcolm X cements the aura of cultural reclamation that serves as the foundational element of A Tempest.
Malcolm X: (1925-1965), born Malcolm little was an African -American Muslim minister, human rights activist and public speaker
Cesaire’s obvious use of a strong, militant black man in Caliban shows similarities with C.I.R. James, an Afro-Trinidadian historian, journalist, social theorist and essayist.
Cesaire has also included the character Eshu who in the play is cast as a black devil-god. Calling on the Yoruba mythological traditions of West Africa, Eshu assumes the archetypal role of the trickster and thwarts Prospero’s power and authority during assemblies.
Near the end of the play, Prospero sends all the lieutenants off the island to procure a place in Naples for his daughter Miranda and her husband Ferdinand. When the fleet begs him to leave, Prospero refuses and claims that the island cannot stand without him; in the end, only he and Caliban remain. As Prospero continues to assert his hold on the island, Caliban’s freedom song can be heard in the background. Thus, Cesaire leaves his audience to consider the lasting effects of colonialism.
Eşu (other names Exu, Eshu, Eleggua, Elegba…) is the messenger of the deities in the Yoruba mythology.
- Eşu is one the most well-known deities of the Yoruba mythology and its related New World traditions.
- He has a wide range of responsibilities: the protector of travelers, deity of roads, particularly crossroads, the deity with the power over fortune and misfortune, and the persinification of death.
A tempest, Caliban, ingiliz dili ve edebiyatı ders notları